Finite-Temperature Dynamics of a Single Vortex in a Bose-Einstein Condensate: Equilibrium Precession and Rotational Symmetry Breaking


We consider a finite-temperature Bose-Einstein condensate in a quasi-two-dimensional trap containing a single precessing vortex. We find that such a configuration arises naturally as an ergodic equilibrium of the projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation, when constrained to a finite conserved angular momentum. In an isotropic trapping potential, the condensation of the classical field into an off-axis vortex state breaks the rotational symmetry of the system. We present a methodology to identify the condensate and the Goldstone mode associated with the broken rotational symmetry in the classical-field model. We also examine the variation in vortex trajectories and thermodynamic parameters of the field as the energy of the microcanonical field simulation is varied.

Physical Review A